What to know about Enterprise Environmental Factors & Organizational Process Assets for the PMP Exam!

Good Morning to all around the world! Hope everyone is having a good week and getting ready for the weekend.

It’s been a hectic week, to end my week I am doing my favorite thing which is writing, of course J.

I am one of the few people that can say I truly love my job! It is such pleasure to meet people from all over the world, so many different backgrounds!

It’s amazing what we can learn from each other! I know studying for the exam can be overwhelming! You are learning 10 knowledge areas & 5 process groups & 49 processes!

Today I wanted to review the Enterprise Environmental Factors (EEFs) & Organizational Process Assets (OPAs).

I know if you have started going through the processes you have seen EEFs & OPAs over and over again!

So, what exactly is an EEF & OPA?  Why do I need to understand that for the test?

Projects exist and operate in environments that may have an influence on them. These influences can have a favorable or unfavorable impact on the project.

EEF = any or all environmental factors either internal or external to the Project that can influence the Project’s success. EEF includes culture, weather conditions, government regulations, political situation, market conditions, etc., which are usually out of one’s control.

Did you read that and re-read it! Do you want me to simplify it for you J. Sure

Internal = the organization’s culture, structure, governance, Geographical distribution of facilities and resources, Infrastructure, Information Technology Software, Resource availability, Employee Capability, etc.…

External = Marketplace conditions, social and culture influence and issues, Legal restrictions, Commercial databases, Academic research, Government or Industry standards, Financial considerations, Physical environmental elements.

  • Company Baggage you and the team must adhere too
  • Out of your control
  • Negative or Positive


In the questions look for scenarios where things are out of your control and you need to adhere to it. This is an indication that you are dealing with an EEF.

  • The project must use the following project charter template.
  • There are only 2 Java experts that can be utilized for the project.
  • You need a permit in order to build the patio.
  • Our servers are only equipped with SP 2016

Hopefully that helped and now you have a clear understanding of EEFs.

Now let’s take a look at OPAs.

OPA = plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases that are specific to and used by the performing organization.

This isn’t too bad is it?  Basically, OPAs include configuration management knowledge, financial data, Historical information and lessons learned, Issue and defect management data, any project files from previous projects.

The project manager and team can utilize what they did. It is not mandatory to use any specific item.


You are working on a website project and realize a similar project was completed 6 months ago.  You then go to the OPAs to see what was done before which can be leveraged onto your new project.

Remember we don’t want to reinvent the wheel!

We will use what we have and tailor it to our needs!

Hope this post clarified your understanding of the EEFs and OPAs. Remember it’s an input to 90 percent of the PMI processes.

Please feel free to ask questions and ask for topics to be written on. We are here on this journey with you!

Good Luck! Can’t wait to see you at the finish line!!!!

Until next time!

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What you need to know about Identifying Stakeholders for the PMP exam!!!!

Even though this is one of the simplest processes in the PMBOK, students have the toughest time with answering questions related to this topic.

It’s a kind of basic boring fact that is easy to overlook when you’re studying, but don’t worry, today’s post is going to clear it up for you so you can crush it on the PMP exam when you see it!!

So what must you know?

You must know that: Identifying stakeholders for a project takes place during the initiating process group as it will be an important input going into the planning process group.

It is a two-step process and each process has its own purpose.

What are the two steps?

First: Identify who the individual stakeholder(s) will be and document in a Stakeholder Register.


Second:  Analyze the project’s relationship with each stakeholder

Let’s talk about the first one:

1.) Who is a stakeholder?

A “stakeholder” is any person or organization that is actively involved in a project, or whose interests may be affected positively or negatively by execution of a project. Stakeholders can be internal or external to the organization.

What are some examples of stakeholders?

  • Group utilizing the service or product
  • Competitors
  • Employees
  • Shareholders
  • Investors
  • Suppliers

Let’s now look at the second step:

2.)   Now that we have our stakeholder list you have to analyze their relationship to the project’s to determine the best communication strategy for a successful project. So, the question is how do we analyze and what tool can we use. Analyzing means asking the following three questions:

  1. Level of engagement in the project
  2. Interest in the project
  3. Level of influence in the project

Let’s take a moment to see what these questions mean.

What does it mean when we say the level of engagement? 

Well, we have to determine how they feel about the new project. Is it something they are unaware of, do they not want it so will be resistant, will they just be neutral and not care either way, do they actually love the project and be supportive and lastly will they help you make it successful by leading it with you.

Then we can ask about their interests in the project. 

So, remember we have to keep in mind that identifying interests is done with the stakeholder’s perspective in mind, not ours. Interest should be related to the appropriate project phase, interests’ changes as the project move from beginning to the ending phases.  Questions like what are your expectations of this project?  How does the successful completion of the project benefit you? Are there any stakeholders that may conflict with your interest?

Last but not least we determine their influence level.

Meaning what power do they have for decisions on the project. Can they hinder a task or change a requirement. Determine the funding limit or impose any schedule constraints.

Now that we have completed our stakeholder analysis the findings should be documented in a stakeholder engagement assessment matrix.  The matrix is an analytical technique used by PMI that lays out information for your stakeholders.

Both of these processes together will determine the best communication strategy to use when engaging them throughout the project life cycle.  Remember when communicating with your stakeholders you need to match their expectations, show you understand their interest, enable effective negotiations, prevent or mitigate problems and take it into account when you plan and execute the project.  All these factors will contribute to correct requirements gathering and defining scope to ensure customer satisfaction and the correct product or service is being provided.

What happens if you don’t identify stakeholders properly?

You end up with a project that doesn’t have well-defined requirements and defined scope leading to scope creep, customer dissatisfaction which equals a failed project.

I hope this reinforced your understanding of identifying stakeholders and the importance of a successful project.

Good luck! Be on the lookout for more great posts taking you a step closer to the finishing line.

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What to know about the Triple Constraint for the PMP exam!

Happy Tuesday to all of our wonderful students! I know it’s been a few days without a post. So, here I am at it again.

Lately there has been a lot of talk about constraints on my project.  I am always asked are there any constraints with your tasks.

Triple Constraints sometimes called the Iron Triangle was introduced by PMI with the following definition is the balance of the project’s scope, schedule (time) and cost. Triple constraint is used to gauge whether a project’s objectives are being met.

So, what does that mean in English terms?  Change is inevitable, changes do occur on projects and when they do they don’t happen in vacuity. When the scope of your project is changed, your time and cost will be affected.

The same is true when time and cost are changed, something in scope will be affected.  The theory is letting us project managers know we must be cognizant of the triple constraint and to help keep others aware of it.

We should not just accept all changes as valid but we need to evaluate how those changes would affect the elements of our project.

How many times has your organization slashed a budget or removed a task without realizing the consequences on other parts of the project. Organizations must know scope, time and cost are interrelated.  When one changes it will definitely have effect on the other.

Let’s fast forward to PMBOK6, the triple constraint has been expanded to represent not a triangle but a hexagon.  Hexagon has sides that represent quality, risk and customer satisfaction.

Did a light bulb turn on, doesn’t this make sense in our everyday project life.  If something in our scope changes we evaluate how it will affect the quality, customer satisfaction and if there will be any risks associated with that.

PMI is letting us know as project managers we must not assume but evaluate, review, assess any change requests and determine their impacts on other elements of your project.

I hope this post clarified project constraints and now you can answer a few more questions correctly on the PMP exam.

Wishing you all a great day!   Watch out for more posts bringing you closer to the finishing line!

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What to know about the Project Management Plan and passing the PMP!

Happy Saturday! Hope everyone is having a great weekend!

As I was running my weekend errands and doing my chores, I realized how important a plan was.

Have you ever heard the expression “Running around like a chicken with no head”?

That is definitely me 90 percent of the time.  But, the more I incorporate the PMI processes into my daily life, the more organized I am.

So, today I figured I write about the Project Management Plan and its importance.

Often my students ask me to elaborate on the Project Management Plan and explain to them how they can get those questions correct on the exam.

How many knowledge areas does PMI teach us?  If you answered 10, you are correct.

How many process groups does PMI teach us? If you answered 5, you are correct.

Now in the planning process group, did you notice each knowledge area starts with

Plan _____ Management…

So, what do you think that means.  If you said we need to plan before we start anything that is correct.

Remember the saying “Fail to plan, plan to fail”

Think about it in your daily life as well.  Don’t you plan how to make your dinner?  Do you plan your outfits before going to work or to a nice dinner event?

I think you get the jest of it now, right. So, let’s take a look at the definition of Project Management Plan

A Comprehensive baseline of what has to be achieved by the project, how it is to be achieved, who will be involved, how it will be reported and measured and how information will be communicated.

It should be used as a reference for any decision that is made on the project and for clarification of unclear areas.  Such a document should be used as a reference throughout the project to ensure that the management of the project is carried out consistently and in line with policy and procedures. It should be a living document that evolves as the project progresses and is updated with the latest relevant information as required.

Wow! That was a long definition. Did you read it twice or even three times?  Yes, go back and reread it.

Let me simplify the definition.  I always tell my students to think of the he plan as a novel with 18 chapters, each chapter is an instruction guide, a how to guide for the specific knowledge area, additional specific areas and baselines.

It does not have the project documents.

It will answer the questions of who, what, where, when and how of managing the specific knowledge area.  If you go back to the textbook definition, you will see the word How many times.

Let’s give an example.  If a new project manager comes onto the project and needs information about communication on the project. Where do you think s/he will look?

If you answered in the Project Management Plan, that is correct!  I would open the Communication Management chapter and read what was written for communicating with the stakeholders on the project.

Now does that make sense?

Things to Remember:

  • It is approved by the sponsor and key stakeholders!
  • 18 chapters (10 knowledge areas, 3 baselines (Scope, Schedule, Cost) and 5 additional areas (Configuration, Change,, Requirements, Development, Performance Measurement)
  • Only a How to Guide (who, what, where, when and how)
  • Planned in the planning process group with the project team
  • Living document that updates as approved changes are implemented on the project and gets reapproved
  • Besides the 3 baselines other project documents are not in the plan

I know a lot of students have a tough time grasping the concept of the Project Management Plan; it is definitely a lot of information to absorb.  But, as you’re studying try to put what you’re learning in your daily lives.

It doesn’t have to be your professional life; it can be your personal life.  Everything we are taught in PMI we can definitely relate to one way or the other.  It becomes a way of life!

The objective is always to make things more efficient and effective.  Make sure you understand the logic and the reason PMI is teaching us that way.  You will be a step closer in passing the test.

I hope this post clarified your understanding of the Project Management Plan. I would love to hear your feedback and please comment with any questions you have.

If you want to see a different topic posted please let us know. We are here on this journey with you every step of the way!

Good Luck! Watch out for more posts getting you closer to the finish line!

Till next time!

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What to know about the Project Documents for the PMP Exam!

Happy Thursday! It’s great seeing all the activity on our Facebook page! I haven’t seen any requests for special posts.

So, today I wanted to talk about Project Documents.  Awhile back I posted about the project management plan.

A lot of students have a difficult time understanding the difference. So, let me dive into that!

Project Documents = documents that are used to manage the information which is not part of Project Management Plan. These documents are prepared by the Project Manager for his own needs.

That definition is easy enough to understandJ.

There are 33 project documents that are outputs in the PMI process! The chart is on page 89 for your reference!

Remember how important it is to write everything down. What happens when you go grocery shopping without a list J.

As project managers we are always running around and there is so much information that our brain needs to retain.  How many times have we forgotten to complete a task!

But, if we are in the habit of documenting then it will be on our radar to complete!

Documentation helps us fulfill our objectives without skipping or forgetting anything.

For the test know that project documents help the PM and team manage their information and tasks to ensure nothing falls through the cracks!

They are outputs from 33 different processes!

They get updated when information changes!

They DON’T have to be reviewed by the project sponsor or key stakeholders!

I hope that helped! Please share comments or questions and let us know how we can make this journey easier!

Remember one step closer to the finishing line!

Good Luck! Till next time!

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What to know about the competencies of the Project Manager for the PMP exam!

Good Morning, Good Afternoon and Good Evening for all our around the world students! Happy Thursday! Hope everyone is having a great day and looking forward to the weekend!

As I sit here at my desk reviewing my projects and their tasks I realized today is a good day for writing about the competencies of a Project Manager.

Remember when you sit for your PMP exam you must answer the questions based on the PMI standards and processes, not your real life experience.

In PMBOK 4 & 5 there really wasn’t much detail about the skill level of a Project Manager. You just knew the Project Manager was responsible for everything from Initiating to Closing and if anything went wrong it was the Project Manager’s fault.

Fast forward to PMBOK 6 where now PMI has introduced the PMI Talent Triangle which I will explain in detail.

I always tell my students that as a Project Manager you are Jack of all Traits but a Master of Nothing!  So, without a good team you don’t have a successful project, there is no I in TEAM.

Team work is key!

Now let’s dissect this PMI Talent Triangle.

Yes, it’s a triangle with three sides; each side represents the competency a Project Manager must have to successfully run a project.

PMI believes having all three skills will make the professionals more efficient and the project will run smoothly.

One the first side is Technical Project Management skill. The textbook says managing project elements, including, but not limited to, schedule, cost, resources, and risks.  Understanding when to use Agile vs Traditional tools and techniques to ensure the project is run efficiently and effectively.


In simple terms, this entire means is being aware of all project specifications in order to have the ability to have viable solutions for different situations.

For example, if your managing electronic consent project to be integrated into the HealthCare systems for physicians to utilize on their mobile devices.  You might understand that the electronic consent application needs a certain web browser with different security options to be utilized.

You would also need to understand different mobile devices and their web browser capability to ensure the application would work on either an apple or windows device.

As a project manager you must have the technical knowledge of that industry and product so, if a difficult situation arises you would be able to come up with a viable solution.

The lack of technical expertise of the industry or product leads to problems in understanding the technical issues and project details which will jeopardize the successful completion of the project.

Now let’s take a look at the second side of the triangle, Strategic and Business Management Skills. The textbook states the ability to explain the business aspects to others, working with the key stakeholders to develop an appropriate project delivery strategy and implementing the strategy to maximize the business value.

Analyzing the business decisions before you implement them to ensure the organization achieves its long term goals.

For example, let’s take a look back at the electronic consent project on mobile devices. You found out as a project manager that safari isn’t compatible with the electronic consent application.  That only IE can accomplish what they need.  Buying Apple devices will not fulfill the physician’s goals.

You will analyze the business requirements against what the product can offer and present to the sponsors the best solution that will meet their long term goals. In this case, you will let the sponsor know windows devices will accomplish the requirements and in the long run, can be used for other functions.

Last but not least, now let’s take a look at the third side, Leadership Skills.  The textbook states the skills needed to deal with people, personality, politics, power and the ability to get things done.

Let’s take a look into what all this means.  You as the Project Manager have to lead the team to successful completion.  This is where your leadership skills come into play, developing the vision for the team and the project and inspiring them to achieve that target.

Remember there is no I in Team.  It’s about winning as a team! A good project manager is proactive and a problem solver.  She/he is a motivator that connects to the team members at all levels. You work with the team to earn your respect.

Another important part of leadership is your management skills.  Ensuring your team members has the right skills needed to successfully complete their tasks.  If not, to provide them with training or coach them yourself.

Alright, friends, we come to the end of our post today.  Let’s do a quick summary.

PMI is telling us in today’s robust environment a project manager must be adaptable. Having expertise in one skill is not enough anymore. The project manager should possess the skills presented in the triangle to successfully complete the project.

Technical project management skills help you better understand and perform specific functions or tasks

Strategic business management helps you deliver the best business outcomes

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What to know about the Communications & the Stakeholder Engagement Plan!

Happy Monday! Hope everyone had a great weekend! How are you all doing with your studies?

Please comment and let us know how we can help you on your PMP journey!

Many of my students ask me to explain the difference between the Communications Management Plan and the Stakeholder Engagement Plan.

Today I am going to try to simplify the plans; hopefully you will have a better understanding and ensure you get the few questions correct.

Remember the post about Project Management Plan. What did I say?

A plan is just an instruction, how to guide, that answers the questions of who, what, where, when and how of that specific area.

Now let’s take a look at the Communications Management Plan – defines who will receive the communication along with the method of communications (interactive, push, pull) and frequency (when) to the various stakeholders.

The plan also mentions the time, budget for the resources, escalation path, flow charts, constraints, guidelines and templates.

Is everyone still with meJ?  That wasn’t too bad was it?

Okay so the Stakeholder Engagement Plan – how you intend to engage your stakeholders. Why you intend to engage the stakeholders.  The document states the stakeholders’ current engagement level and the PM’s desired engagement level for that stakeholder.

It explains how the plan should be updated.

Okay now let me simplified it a little more in about two words.

Communications Management Plan – How you will communicate!

Stakeholder Engagement Plan – Why that stakeholder needs the information!

Yeah I know that was more than two words :).  But, remember it’s the How and Why!

Did I do a good job summarizing the plans?  Did it give you a better understanding and how to think about them?

Remember just think logically and not memorize the processes.  This will help you significantly and will be a step closer to the finish line.

Good Luck! Remember we are just a message away!

Until the next time we meet!

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What to know about Quality Management for the PMP Exam!

Happy Wednesday! Hope everyone is having a great week! The weather is amazing here!

While driving in to work today I was contemplating what to write.

As you can see in the title I decided on Quality Management.

Quality Management is a dry chapter for some but we all know how important quality is.

Not just for passing the PMP exam but our routine daily lives.

So, Quality Management = The process of creating and following policies and procedures to ensure that the product or service meets the defined needs it was intended to meet from the customer’s perspective is termed as Quality Management.

Let’s take a moment to digest that! What does that mean to us?  Let’s take an example now.  Recently I have decided to put up a Gazebo on my patio.  Lately, we have been experiencing high winds where the patio furniture is being moved due to them.

So, I would need to pick a Gazebo that is strong enough to withstand the pressure of the winds.  Most likely I would pick a Gazebo that is built from wood or steel, correct? Ensuring its sturdy so it doesn’t fall due to heavy winds.

By me getting a Gazebo that is sturdy enough to withstand the winds that is quality.  It is meeting my requirements defined in my scope of work.

Makes sense now!

In Quality Management you will read or hear the word Grade!

Let me take a minute to see what that means.

Grade is a number of features built into a product.

Let’s take a look at a car.  I have the Nissan Rogue.  We all know there are different classes for a car.

I have the Nissan Rogue SV which only has the option of a fabric interior but if we go to a Nissan Rogue SL we have the option of leather interior.

So, both cars have the same quality but different grade.  One has the lesser grade while the other has a higher grade just because you have an option to pick leather seats. The more functions the higher the grade!

I know like to look at two more terms in order for you to understand Quality Management.

Accuracy vs Precision

Accuracy = how the measured value is close to the target value

Precision = the values of repeated measurements are clustered and have less scatter. Measurements are only close to one another, and they may or may not be near the target value

I found this example from https://www.brainbok.com/blog/pmp/accuracy-vs-precision-quality-management/ and wanted to share it with you!

Your office starts at 8:00am. Arriving to work after 8:15am is considered late. You take a subway train to commute to work. Usually you board the same train every (working) day that departs at 7:30am. Barring any unusual circumstances, you report at work between 8:22am and 8:24am every day.

Which of the following is true regarding your reporting time to work?

  1. Accurate
  2. Precise
  3. Both accurate and precise
  4. Neither accurate nor precise


Your office starts at 8am and you reach between 8:22am and 8:24am every day. Your arrival time is always within the 2 min window. In other words, your arrival time has very little scatter, which means it’s very precise. However, the true or target value is 8:00am. Your arrival time is 22-24 mins away from the target. Therefore, you are “not” accurate in terms of arrival time, particularly when your company considers arriving after 8:15am as late.

Now let’s twist the situation a bit. What if you arrive at work between 7:32am and 7:34am every day. Does that make you any more accurate?

The answer is – No. Now you may argue that arriving at work early every day makes you accurate (and makes your boss happy) but in statistical terms, you are still “not” accurate because you are 26-28 mins away from the target value of 8:00am.

Now that was Quality Management in a nutshell! I hope this brought some clarity to a dry subject!

Another step closer to the finish line! In my next post I will write about the importance of Communications!

Take a moment to think about that.  Why is communications important! In any relationship or situation!

Can someone read our mind?

Have a great day and the rest of your week! Don’t hesitate to leave a comment or ask a question!

We are here throughout your journey and can’t wait to cheer you when you are PMP certified!

Till next time!

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What to know about Procurement Management for the PMP Exam!

Happy Sunday! Happy Mother’s Day to all the mothers around the world! Hope your enjoying your well-deserved day!

Today is one of the busiest days of the year for purchasing goods and services!

As everyone is out and about buying their wives, mother’s, sister’s, girlfriends beautiful gifts, I figured it was a great day to write about procurement management.

I know most purchases will be a one-time transaction and won’t require contracts.  But, here I will try to simplify Procurement Management for the PMP.

Procurement Management = buying of goods and/or services.

Procurement Management has one processes in the Planning (Plan Procurement Management), Executing (Conduct Procurement) and Monitoring and Controlling (Control Procurement) process groups.

Yes, a total of 3 processes make up Procurement Management!

Plan Procurement Management — The make buy technique is utilized by the project manager to decide if it would benefit the project if they purchased either goods or services from a 3rd party or to stay in house.

The technique is an analysis of market research that also includes cost information to make the best decision for the project.  Depending on their findings a decision will be made on how to move forward.

If it was decided to purchase something then the plan is developed. Remember the plan is a how to guide stating the contract type, statement of work (what is needed), procurement strategy, selection criteria, make buy analysis, independent estimates and any change requests that are due to the new findings.

Conduct Procurement – Now you are receiving responses from the interested sellers. Major technique here used is bidder conference where you designate a time and place for all the interested sellers to meet and answer any questions they might have regarding the proposal.

The objective here is to ensure everyone is on the same page and it’s a fair procurement process all around.

Output of Conduct Procurement is yes, Select Seller! You select your seller and award the contract!

Control Procurement — Now that the contract is in place it is your responsibility to ensure the contractor is working per the term and conditions of the contract. If there are any issues you have a claims administration technique that can be utilized.

Claims Administration — resolving contract issues, changes, etc. between the seller and buyer.

Closed Procurement is the major output! Once the work has been completed and the contract needs to be closed, this is where we would close the procurement!

That was Procurement Management in a nutshell.

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What to know about Integration Management for the PMP Exam!

Happy Sunday and here is to a nice long weekend for everyone here in the states.

I know it’s been a while that I haven’t written so, I guess it’s time!

Today I have chosen to write about Integration Management.

Integration Management = knowledge area exclusively for the use of project managers. … The project integration includes the processes and activities needed to identify, define, combine, unify, & coordinate the various processes & project management activities within the project management process groups.

What does that mean in English terms?  Remember PMI is a different language and verbiage you need to understand. You really can’t memorize everything and if you do it will be useless if you really don’t understand it logically.

So, Integration in English means to put together, right.

Now let’s put this into project management terms.  All Integration Management is putting everything in a cohesive whole.  The act of balancing all the knowledge areas to ensure you is within budget, schedule, no scope creep, providing the best quality and customer satisfaction.

When a change is requested it must go through the Integrated Change Control process to determine the impact to the other constraints of the project.

Remember Integration Management is the only knowledge area that hits all the process groups

(Initiating, Planning, Executing, Monitor & Controlling and Closing).

Know what your PM’s role as an integrator is.  Can you answer that question?

First let’s look some of the tasks a PM is responsible for

  • Scope management to ensure whatever is committed and contractually required is done and not less or more than it
  • Time management for keeping a tab on Schedule of the overall project and its sub-components
  • Cost management for keeping a tab on critical aspects of budgets
  • Communicating all the different set of stakeholders of projects
  • Managing stakeholders for their expectations
  • Managing resources for the best out of them
  • Managing quality aspects of the Project outcomes
  • Managing risks, both known and unknown and making sure project is least impacted due to it
  • Managing all required procurements for the project s/he working on
  • In addition, project manager also has to do manage change and configuration in the project

In order to complete his / her tasks in an efficient and effective manner, the PM has to look at the things in a connected manner. I.e. at any point of time, you can’t only look at the project quality, you have to also ensure, while looking at quality you are not taking more time also this is not over shooting the budget.

We all know not all projects work as planned, rather none of them go as per plan and that’s why project managers are there. We experience that in our daily lives. How many times have you planned your day but your plans have been changed due to unknown circumstance.  We have as PM’s have unique experience and need to deal accordingly.

To integrate all this we as PMs must keep a tab on scope, time, and cost and in case of challenges and risks, to ensure it’s communicated to right stakeholders in the right manner and time.

I hope this helped simplified integration management and you saw it in a different light!

I also wanted to remind everyone that the exam will be changing in Dec 2019. That gives you 7 months to study and pass!

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